Health information technology (Health IT) is an area of information technology that includes the design, development, creation, use and maintenance of information systems for the healthcare industry. Automated and compatible healthcare information systems will continue to improve healthcare and healthcare, reduce costs, increase efficiency, reduce errors and increase patient satisfaction, and optimize cost recovery for outpatient and inpatient health care providers.

Nowadays, the importance of Health information technology services stems from a combination of evolving technologies and changing public policies that affect the quality of patient care.

Types of Health IT

EHR is a central component of healthcare IT infrastructure. EHR, or Electronic Medical Record Card (EMR) is an official & digital human medical record and is used by several healthcare providers and agencies. Other key elements of a healthcare IT infrastructure are a personal health record (PHR), which is a personal health record, and medical information exchange (HIE), a medical data exchange center, or a group of medical organizations that are part of a compatibility agreement and consent to share data between various healthcare IT systems. Thanks to smartphones and other mobile devices, PHR will grow in popularity over the coming years as consumers will be more comfortable using digital health information. Thus, PHR will need to be further integrated with EHR technology.

As a result of the huge amount of patient information that medical organizations are currently engaged in, data analytics has become more important in everyday work. The ability to collect patient information, analyze it and then base treatment on results, goes well with population health management (PHM) and value-based healthcare. Artificial intelligence will take analytics to a higher level, although AI has not relied on diagnoses since 2018. Analytics also raises the question of who owns the data: the patient, the healthcare organization, or the provider who produced the analytic software? Health trends indicate that patients will eventually become owners

In addition to EHR, there are other important medical IT technologies. Image archiving and transmission systems (PACS) and manufacturer-independent archives (VNAs) are two commonly used types of healthcare information technology that help healthcare providers store and manage patient medical images. In the past, radiology departments were the main repositories of medical images, but PACS and VNA integrated radiology into the hospital’s main workflow. And other specialties, such as cardiology and neurology, have also become major producers of clinical images. In some cases, VNAs have been established as a way to combine image data stored in image banks of individual departments into a multi-purpose healthcare system.

Developments in healthcare technology include portals for patients. In earlier days, the patient portal may have been a clumsy site that allowed patients to view upcoming visits and possibly see raw laboratory test results.

In comparison, modern portals provide more options for patient care. The portals allow patients to communicate safely with their doctors, pay bills, verify services against what the insurance plan allows, download complete medical records, order prescriptions, and possibly interact with the chatbot for other services. Portals can also integrate with telemedicine systems that provide secure video communications between patients and providers. As the convenience and convenience of videoconferencing improves, telemedicine will become an important part of patient care, which may have to talk to a doctor or nurse face-to-face, but do not have to visit a doctor in the office.

More recent innovations in healthcare IT include the wider use of an application program interface (API) to improve interoperability, the ability to access and interact with medical data through mobile devices, and further explore the blockchain as a way to improve access and protection medical records. ,

Regulations and supervision

The implementation of EHR systems has increased dramatically over the past few years since the adoption in 2009 of the Law on Medical Information Technologies for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH), which presented EMC incentive programs and their associated significant use program. Doctors and hospitals that have proven their use of government-certified EMC systems have met significant usage criteria – established and controlled by the Centers for Health and Medical Care (CMS) and the Office of the National Health Coordinator (ONC) – to receive incentive payments totaling tens of billions of dollars in the US healthcare industry.

Reasonable use is changing to a new cost-based reimbursement system under a law passed by Congress in 2015, called MACRA, the Medicare Access and CHIP (Children’s Health Insurance Program) Reauthorization Act. Meanwhile, the 21st Century Treatment Act of 2016 allocated $ 6 billion for medical research using advanced technology and science.

In addition, healthcare organizations and their business partners, such as third-party billing companies that process protected health information (PHI), are subject to the Health Insurance Mobility and Accountability Act (HIPAA), created and implemented by the Ministry of Health and Human Rights USA. Services (HHS). The law requires patients to have full access to their PHI and protects the confidentiality of their information by restricting access to it by other parties. A healthcare provider who has a PHI violation may be fined by the HHS Civil Rights Office (OCR).

Security and privacy rules

The HIPAA Safety and Privacy Rules have long directed healthcare organizations to provide patients with access to their medical records and to protect this information.

Such goals are becoming increasingly relevant, given that since 2010, data leaks and malware attacks have endangered the healthcare industry. In 2017, nearly 5.6 million patients violated their records, and although the number of hacking data on patients this year has decreased, attacks by malware and ransomware on the number of health sites have increased, according to a report by Protenus, a company protecting privacy and security in the field of information technology for 2018 year.

In response, traditional healthcare IT systems are now often integrated with data protection and cybersecurity technologies. Employee training is also part of the solution, as human errors can lead to data leakage.

As in many industries, IT managers and directors of information technology (CIO) in healthcare organizations have gained credibility as technology is becoming more common.

The growing position of computer science or computer science is directly related to the expansion of IT healthcare. Within the framework of medical informatics and its options, professionals jointly manage and study information technology and health data. Computer scientists may have IT experience or clinical education, but in both cases, these people combine science, treatment, and information technology. For example, a clinical computer scientist may be someone with experience working as a bedside nurse and transitioning to an IT-based role.

In addition, there are a subset of medical practitioners and nurses who have also become experts in healthcare information technology and patient data. Although these clinicians are still deeply rooted in patient care, it is easier for them to communicate with IT professionals about their needs and available technologies.

In a broader sense, health information technology has affected every doctor who has been trained in EMC or telemedicine systems, and working with this technology has become a core skill.

Benefits of Health Information Technology

Although some critics argue that EHR has led doctors to spend more time entering data than communicating with patients and developing cumbersome federal rules, there is widespread consensus on the benefits of IT in healthcare. These benefits include:

  •  the ability to use data analytics and big data to effectively manage public health management programs and reduce the incidence of costly chronic diseases;
  • the use of cognitive computing and analytics to perform accurate medicine (PM) for individual patients;
  • the ability to exchange health data between academic researchers to develop new treatments and drugs; as well as
  • The rights of patients to receive and use their own health data and to work with doctors.
  • Currently, most obstetrician-gynecologists use electronic medical records. They quickly began to be used due to the recognition of their potential benefits and government programs that stimulate their use. The benefits of health information technology (IT) include the ability to store and retrieve data; the ability to quickly transmit patient information in a readable format; increased drug safety due to increased legibility, which potentially reduces the risk of errors when taking drugs; and ease of finding patient information.
  • Potential for improving patient safety exists through the use of medication warnings, clinical flags and reminders, better tracking and reporting of counseling and diagnostic testing, support for clinical decision making and the availability of complete patient data. Data collected using health information technology can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions, and it has been demonstrated that they lead to improved medical practice. Warnings can optimize adherence to guidelines and evidence-based assistance. Record uniformity can be designed to reduce deviations from practice, conduct systematic reviews to ensure quality, and optimize evidence-based care for common conditions.
  • Health IT increases the involvement of patients as consumers of care. This allows patients to access their medical records, which helps them feel more aware of their conditions and encourages them to participate actively in joint decision-making.
  • Out of contact with the patient, this can improve the monitoring of missed appointments, consultations, and diagnostic testing. A healthcare professional can search for specific patient groups as part of a practice to track and improve compliance with specified care, such as a mammogram, Pap test, or hemoglobin measurement Level A.
  • EHRs reduce your paper documents. The clipboard and a new patient questionnaire may remain part of your doctor’s office for some time. But as additional information is added to your EHR, your doctor and hospital will have access to more of this data as soon as you arrive. This means that you need to fill out smaller and shorter forms, reducing the “troublesome” health factor.
  • EHR accurately transmit your information to people who need it. Even if you have relatively simple health care needs, coordinating information between health care providers can be a daunting task that can lead to medical errors if performed incorrectly. When all your providers can share your health information through the EHR, each provider gets access to more accurate and up-to-date information about your treatment. This allows your providers to make the best possible decisions, especially in times of crisis.
  • EHRs help your doctors coordinate your treatment and ensure your safety. Suppose you visit three specialists in addition to your doctor. Each of them can prescribe different medicines, and sometimes these medicines can interact in a harmful way. EHRs can alert your healthcare providers if they try to prescribe a medicine that can cause this kind of interaction. EHR may also alert one of your doctors if another doctor has already prescribed a drug that did not help you, saving you the risks and costs associated with taking ineffective drugs.
  • EHRs reduce unnecessary tests and procedures. Have you ever had to repeat medical tests prescribed by one doctor because the results were not readily available to another doctor? These tests can be uncomfortable and uncomfortable or pose a certain risk, and they also cost money. Repeated tests – whether a blood test for $ 30 or an MRI for $ 1,800 – lead to higher costs in the form of increased bills and increased premiums. Thanks to EHR, all your healthcare providers can have access to all the results and records of your tests at the same time, which reduces the likelihood of unnecessary retesting.
  • EHRs provide you direct access to your medical record. In the United States, you already have a federal guaranteed right to review your medical records, identify incorrect and missing information, and make additions or corrections as necessary. Some health care providers using EHR systems provide their patients with direct access to their health information on the Internet in ways that help maintain confidentiality and security. This access allows you to better track your service, and in some cases answer your questions immediately, rather than wait hours or days for a phone call back. This access can also allow you to communicate directly and safely with your healthcare provider.
  • Faster and more accurate prescriptions: e-prescription systems automatically send prescriptions to your pharmacy because your medicine is ready to be taken out upon arrival, which saves you time. Electronic prescribing can also reduce the chance of medication errors, for example, due to dirty handwriting on a paper prescription.
  • Reducing unnecessary tests: doctors sometimes order tests that you had before, simply because they do not have easy access to previous test results. If all the results of your tests are recorded in EHR, which can communicate with each other, and the health care provider can see the results of previous tests available to you and order only really necessary tests and procedures, saving time, money and discomfort while reducing risk.

Other Health information technology Issues

Some serious problems persist in the healthcare sector. Chief among them are barriers to collaboration, including the lack of generally accepted standards for sharing medical data, although HL7 International (Health Level Seven) has developed and promulgated several popular standards – most recently, FHIR (Fast Health Interaction Resources).

In addition, federal officials and patient advocates have identified the alleged practice of blocking information by some providers and providers as a common problem in an attempt to prevent the ability to share health data on their systems. Healthcare regulators are increasingly saying that they will not tolerate information blocking.

Noways, All of these sellers are now looking over their shoulder at the fact that huge, non-health IT companies such as Apple, Google and Amazon are embracing the healthcare industry.

For example, in 2018, Apple began successfully testing technology that allowed the Apple Health app to integrate a patient’s PHR with the hospital’s EHR, and Cerner and Epic also participated in these tests. Meanwhile, Amazon, JPMorgan Chase and Berkshire Hathaway planned to create an independent medical company for their employees, using information technology to help the project.

In addition, Google and Fitbit have announced a collaboration within the new Google API for cloud healthcare based on FHIR.